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Delayed recovery not only leads to increased morbidity but also is a potential financial burden both on the hospital as well as the patient.
Though there are numerous studies which have compared different opioids, only a few studies have been carried out to compare the recovery characterstics of fentanyl and butorphanol.Standard induction was done with propofol 2 mg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg was used for intubation.Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion and 67% nitrous oxide in oxygen.The present study configured one hundred adults patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 or 2 of either sex scheduled to undergo elective open cholecystectomy and were randomly assigned to receive fentanyl (group F; = 50).It is concluded that besides easy availability and lower cost, butorphanol decreased propofol consumption intraoperatively and provided better analgesia and prophylaxis against shivering in postoperative period.
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Narcotics have also been used for attenuation of pressor response during laryngoscopy and intubation and are believed to provide a comfortable recovery from anaesthesia.Ideally the recovery should be smooth and gradual and free from pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), shivering, deep sedation or respiratory depression and should enable a shorter stay in recovery room.